Norman Osborn is the CEO and founder of Oscorp Industries and father of Harry Osborn. He is also a member of the Cabal and a high-ranking associate of HYDRA's financial district, taking on the identity of the Green Goblin, and later the Goblin King to lead a variety of criminal organizations such as the Sinister Initiative and HAMMER.
Norman Osborn is the former CEO and founder of Oscorp Industries, having built his chemicals corporate empire at the expense of ruining competitors and partners alike, as was the fate of his old business partners Adrian Toomes and Mendel Stromm. He was among the first chemical corporate magnates to be approached by the U.S. Government, represented by Nick Fury of S.H.I.E.L.D. and General Ross of the U.S. Army, to have his best scientists work on reproducing Dr. Erskine's long-lost Super-Soldier Serum, with Dr. Robert Bruce Banner assigned as a consultant on the project. Osborn, hoping to use the serum for his own unscrupulous ends once it was completed, agreed on the project, and pulled out one of Stromm's old mothballed design plans for a similar serum utilizing a chemical compound called Globulin Green as a major component in producing the super serum.
When progress on reproducing the Erskine Formula through Globulin Green was not reaching its critical mass, Osborn was forced to step in and personally finish the chemical engineering process himself. Finally, after several weeks of hard work, the serum was completed, but the U.S. soldiers Norman hired as test subjects failed to exhibit perfect condition without the needed Vita-Rays to stabilize the serum, and were all hideously disfigured or died from the serum's side-effects. Angered at the test results, General Ross threatened to cut off funding for the project if Osborn didn't produce positive results within another week. So, Osborn went into overdrive to find out what went wrong with the testing process, only to discover in the notes that he had been missing a few essential pieces to the chemical make-up of the serum. Adding those pieces to the puzzle, Osborn thus volunteered to make himself the last test subject, and subjected himself to the Globulin Green serum in a gaseous form while also being bombarded with the necessary Vita-Rays to stabilize the serum's effects. The result seemed to kill him, but it instantly revived him at an incredible, superhuman rate, increasing his strength and intelligence in the process, but also amplifying his negative traits based on Erskine's warnings for those who would use the serum for evil, one such effect being slight mental instability. Rather than report the serum's success to SHIELD or the government, Osborn decided instead to cut off all ties to both entities and show the world what he could with his newfound power, stealing a prototype flight armor and halloween goblin mask to wear in disguise as the newly moniker-ed Green Goblin, based on a childhood fear of his that he was all too willing to share with the rest of humanity.
He has since gone on to found the Sinister Six through a donated grant from HYDRA, and merge Oscorp Industries with the shattered fragments of the former government think-tank A.I.M.. He later saw an opportunity during SHIELD's collapse, pressuring the government to create a new public agency to fill the gap left by SHIELD and the ATCU. After a few years of debate, the government ultimately decided to approve and thus Osborn became leader of HAMMER, which would be used as a cover for various illegal activities.